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အိမ္တစ္လံုးကို ၆ နာရီအၾကာနဲ႔ တည္ေဆာက္ႏိုင္ၿပီး အဲဒီအိမ္ေတြကို အမ်ားသူငါ ေဆာက္ေလ့ရွိသလို အုတ္၊ အဂၤေတ၊ သစ္၊ ဝါး စတာေတြနဲ႔ ေဆာက္လုပ္ တာမဟုတ္ဘဲ ကြန္တိန္နာေတြနဲ႔သာ ေဆာက္လုပ္ တာပါလို႔ဆိုရင္ သင္ လက္ခံယံုၾကည္ႏိုင္ပါ့မလား မိတ္ေဆြ။ ဟုတ္ပါတယ္။ အေမရိကန္ႏိုင္ငံ၊ မီခ်ီဂန္ျပည္နယ္က လူဦးေရအထူထပ္ဆံုး ၿမိဳ႕ ႀကီးတစ္ခုျဖစ္တဲ့ ဒတ္ထရိတ္ မွာ သေဘၤာတင္တဲ့ ကြန္တိန္နာေတြကို သစ္ဝါးေတြ သဖြယ္ အပိုင္းပိုင္းလိုရာျဖတ္ေတာက္လို႔ အိမ္ကေလး ေတြအျဖစ္ ေဆာက္လုပ္ထားတာ သင္မ်က္ျမင္ကိုယ္ ေတြ႕ ၾကည့္႐ႈႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ အိမ္ေလးေတြဟာ

Read more: လူေနထိုင္ရာ အိမ္တစ္လံုးအျဖစ္ အမ်ားလက္ခံလာႏိုင္ေအာင္ ရည္ရြယ္တည္ေဆာက္ထားတဲ့ သေဘၤာကြန္တိန္နာအိမ္

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က်ဳိင္းတံုက်ဳိင္းတံုလို႔ လြယ္လြယ္ေျပာေနၾကတဲ့ သံလြင္အေရွ႕ျခမ္းက ၿမိဳ႕ေလးတစ္ၿမိဳ႕ဟာ ေရွးယခင္ ရွမ္းလူမ်ဳိးတုုိ႔ရဲ႕ အတိတ္သမုုိင္းေတြနဲ႔ ျပည့္နက္ေနတဲ့ ရွမ္းသမုုိင္းဝင္ ၿမိဳ႕ေတာ္ေဟာင္းတစ္ခုုပါ။ က်ဳိင္း တုံၿမိဳ႕ေလးဟာ ေရွးယခင္ထဲက စႏၵာရကြမ္း၊ ေခမရဋ္၊ တံုဂပူရိ၊ ေခမာဝရ၊ တိုင္းဂံုျပည္လို႔ ငါးမည္ရတဲ့ သမိုင္းဝင္ ရွမ္းၿမိဳ႕ေတာ္ေဟာင္းလည္းျဖစ္ပါသည္။

AD -၁၂၄၃ ေကာဇာသကၠရာဇ္ ၆ဝ၅ ခုုႏွစ္မွစ၍ AD – ၁၉၆၂ ခုု ေကာဇာသကရာဇ္ ၁၃၂၄ ခုႏွစ္ထိ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ခဲ့ေသာ ေစာ္ဘြားဦးေရမွာ စုစုေပါင္း ၄၉ ပါးရွိတယ္လုုိ႔ မွတ္တမ္းမ်ားအရ သိရပါသည္။ က်ဳိင္းတံုေဒသေန ဌာေနရွမ္းမ်ားသည္ နမ့္ခိင္ျမစ္ကုုိစြဲ၍ ေနထုုိင္လာခဲ့ေသာေၾကာင့္ ယင္းရွမ္းလူမ်ဳိးတုိ႔ကုိ ရွမ္းလုိတုုိင္းခိင္ ဟုုေခၚဆုုိခဲ့ၾကရာ အျခားသူမ်ားက ေခၚဆုုိေသာ အသံမပိသေသာေၾကာင့္ ခိင္ကုုိ 'ဂံု' ဟုထြက္ခါ ဂုံရွမ္းလူမ်ဳိးဟု ျမန္မာ့သမုိင္းမွာ ေရးသားလာၾကတာကုုိလည္း ေတြ႕ရပါသည္။

တုိင္းခိင္လုုိ႔ေခၚတဲ့ ဂုံရွမ္းလူမ်ဳိးတုိ႔ရဲ႕ တုုံဂပူရိ သခင္မတစ္ပါးကေတာ့...

Read more: တံုဂပူရိ သခင္မ

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The Water Festival is the New Year's celebrations that take place in Southeast Asian countries such as Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand as well as Yunnan, China. It is called the 'Water Festival' by Westerners because people splash / pour water at one another as part of the cleansing ritual to welcome the new year.

Traditionally people gently sprinkled water on one another as a sign of respect, but as the new year falls during the hottest month in South East Asia, many people end up dousing strangers and passersby in vehicles in boisterous celebration. The act of pouring water is also a show of blessings and good wishes. It is believed that on this Water Festival, everything old must be thrown away, or it will bring the owner bad luck.

The festival has many different names specific to each country, such as Songkran in Laos and Thailand, Chaul Chnam Thmey in Cambodia, and Thingyan in Myanmar. The New Year is celebrated in other South Asian countries, based on the astrological event of the sun beginning its northward journey. Traditional dance, singing and cultural shows are performed together during the festival. Religious activities in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism are also carried out at both pagoda and monastery. Young people visit elders to pay respect during this period.

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The Burmese New Year Thingyan is announced by the traditional calendar of Myanmar Team and normally falls around 13 April. Cambodia celebrates the Cambodian New Year from 13 to 15 April. The Lao New Year, called Songkran in the Lao language, is celebrated every year from 13 to 15 April. The Thai New Year is fixed every year from 13 to 15 April.

It is believed that water festival washes away sins and welcomes the New Year. The water festival represents the most popular, raucous and colorful celebration of the year for more than 120 million people who will abandon any thoughts of work and bring their nations to a standstill. People around the country gather together again and visits pagodas, offers and pay homage to the monks, play traditional games and celebrate with their joyous spirit.

Rakhine

The Rakhine (formerly Arakanese), is a nationality in Burma forming the majority along the coastal region of present day Rakhine State. They possibly constitute 5.53% or more of Myanmar's total population but no accurate census figures exist. Arakanese people also live in the southeastern parts of Bangladesh, especially in Chittagong and Barisal Divisions.

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The Arakanese are predominantly Theravada Buddhists and are one of the four main Buddhist ethnic groups of Burma (the others being the Bamar, Shan and Mon people). They claim to be one of the first groups to become followers of Gautama Buddha in Southeast Asia. The Arakanese culture is similar to the dominant Burmese culture but with more Indian influence, likely due to its geographical isolation from the Burmese mainland divided by the Arakan Mountains and its closer proximity to South Asia. Traces of Indian influence remain in many aspects of Arakanese culture, including its literature, music, and cuisine.

Rakhine Thingyan

11th Rakhine Traditional Thingyan Water Festival was held in Yangon on April 12 of 2014 in conjunction with the Natha Grinding competition. 16 teams participated in the Natha Grinding ceremony. Dr. San Hla Kyaw, Chairman for the Observance of the Rakhine Thingyan Water Festival said that “The Natha grinding competition is the eleventh times. We have to hold the competition in accordance with our Rakhine traditional culture. We are going to donate the Natha water got from the competition to the pagoda and to launch the Thingyan Water Festival,”

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The opening ceremony of Rakhine Thingyan Water Festival was held at Thuwanna Football Ground in Thingan-gyun Township of Yangon East District. The new year festivals were celebrated by the Arakanese community in many places in Burma, Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia from 13 to 17 April. Both Arakanese and Burmese participated in the occasion.

On 12 April of 2014, a water festival was celebrated by Arakanese students in Chittagong, the second largest city in Bangladesh. Many young people participated in the water festival and news of the celebration was picked up by many local Bengali newspapers. The biggest water festival will be celebrated by the Arakanese community in Yangon, with ten water-play pavilions where young men and women play by throwing water at each other.

Ko Hla Mying, secretary of the festival committee, said that "We have ten townships represented with water-play pavilions at the Rangoon Rakhine water festival and we celebrate the festival in accordance with Rakhine traditions. However, security will be tight at our festival with security guards deployed and CCTV video cameras set up." Thingyan will also be celebrated around Arakan State, especially in the capital Sittwe. The Arakanese community in Sittwe has plans to hold the largest Rakhine traditional water festival ever held in the city.

The Arakanese water festival is very lovely and different from other water festivals. Unmarried boys and girls have the chance to play water with each other at pavilions with a boat placed in water. During the play, a boy can approach a girl he is interested in to offer his love. No relatives, including the father and mother of the girl, can interfere with their child's affairs during the water festival. Because of this, thousands of Arakanese youth participate happily in the water festival to celebrate the new year. ♀

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ဘ႐ိုင္ယန္ထေရစီ (Brian Tracy) ဟာ အေမရိကန္မွာ ၾသဇာလႊမ္းမိုးမႈအရွိဆံုးေဟာေျပာပြဲေတြ က်င္းပၿပီးျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ (Brian Tracy) ဟာ တစ္ခ်ိန္က ဘီလ္ဂိတ္ရဲ႕ စီးပြားေရးလမ္းၫႊန္ ဆရာ ျဖစ္ခဲ့သလို ကမၻာေက်ာ္ Buffet ,Michael Dell , Jack Welch တို႔ေတာင္ သူ႔ေဟာေျပာပြဲေတြကို တက္ေရာက္ခဲ့ဖူးပါတယ္။ သူ႕ကို ကယ္လီဖုိးနီးယားျပည္နယ္ San Diego ၿမိဳ႕က က်ပန္းအလုပ္သမားမိဘႏွစ္ဦးက ၁၉၄၄ ခုႏွစ္က ေမြးဖြားခဲ့တာပါ။ စားေသာက္ဆိုင္ ပန္းကန္ေဆးဘဝ၊ ကားေရ ေဆးဘဝ၊ ကုမၸဏီသန္႔ရွင္းေရးဘဝကေန သန္းၾကြယ္ ဘဝေရာက္ေအာင္ ႀကိဳးစားခဲ့သူတစ္ဦးျဖစ္တယ္။

Read more: ၾကံဳရာက်ပန္းဘ၀ကေန သန္းၾကြယ္ဘ၀ေရာက္ခဲ့သူ

“My father was a child of his times who grew into a man for all time.”

Aung San Suu Kyi

68-69 Burma (Myanmar) was annexed by the British Empire in the late 19th century. Soon the injustices of colonial rule, together with a growing self awareness amongst university students and the general population, led to the growth of nationalist movements in the early 20th century. After the Second World War, in which Burma was invaded by Japan and eventually regained by Britain, General (Bogyoke) Aung San became a prominent figure in uniting the various national groups of Burma and securing their independence. He is recognized as the leading architect of independence, and the founder of the Union of Burma. Aung San is the father of Nobel Peace laureate and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.

Life

Born in the township of Natmauk on Feb. 13, 1915, Aung San was the son of fairly well-off parents. He graduated from one of the high schools set up by Burmese nationalists to demonstrate their independence of foreign-provided education, and he received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Rangoon. As a university student, he was extremely active politically, serving as president of the Rangoon University Students’ Union, breeding ground of nationalist leaders, and as one of the founders of the All-Burma Students’ Union.

Editor of Oway, the Rangoon University student magazine, Aung San was expelled from the university in 1936 for printing a slashing personal attack on a college official. The attack had no connection whatsoever with mounting nationalist demands against the British colonial presence but led nonetheless to the 1936 students’ strike, the majorshaping event of pre-World War II Burmese nationalism. Like various other Burmese nationalists of the period, Aung San wrote well in both Burmese and English. He was founding member of the anticolonial Red Dragon Book Club (together with U Nu, later to be independent Burma’s first premier) and a member of the editorial staff of the only English-language newspaper in the prewar years, New Burma.

Aung San was elected general secretary of the extreme nationalist Thakin (Our Own Masters) party in 1938, and he became the leading young nationalist before World War II and one of the two or three key Burmese political figures in the country. He helped to found the All-Burma Peasants League and, together with Dr. Ba Maw, established the Freedom Bloc to present a united front against the continuation of the British colonial presence. For such activities he was frequently interrogated and detained by the authorities.

Fight for Independence

General Aung San went underground in late 1940 to escape arrest by the British and subsequently left the country surreptitiously to make contact with Japanese officials in occupied southeastern China. He traveled to Japan, then returned to Burma to lay the groundwork for subsequent Japanese-Burmese nationalist cooperation against the British.

When he returned to Japan in early 1941, he took with him 29 fellow young nationalists, none of them as prominent politically as himself. He feared that the departure of more prominent figures would arouse British suspicion. Aung San and these others were to lead the so-called Burma Independence Army into Burma from Thailand in 1942, in cooperation with the Japanese, and gain Burmese immortality as the "Thirty Comrades."

The Thirty Comrades were subsequently to rank as the greatest heroes of the Burmese nationalist revolution. Many were to play major political roles in postcolonial Burma, including Gen. Ne Win, who unseated elected premier U Nu in 1958 and 1962 and was Burma's head of government during most of the 1960s.Suspicious of Japanese intentions toward Burma almost from the start, Aung San nonetheless accepted command of the Burma Defense Army, heretofore the Burma Independence Army. When Burmese "independence" was proclaimed in 1943, Aung San, who had been made a major general, was minister of war in the collaborationist Ba Maw government together with almost all of the other young nationalists. Despite his official position, however, he repeatedly spoke out against the sham character of Burma's alleged independence.

In August 1944 Aung San was the principal moving force behind the establishment of the Anti-Fascist Organization, the clandestine resistance force that subsequently became the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) and Burma's governing party for the first 10 years of independence after 1948. In March 1945 he led the Burma Defense Army, newly named the Patriot Burmese Forces, into open rebellion against Japan and subsequently into cooperation with the returning British military forces.

Elected president of the AFPFL in 1945 and reelected the subsequent year at a convention attended by 100,000 persons, the youthful Aung San emerged from World War II the best known and most popular of the Burmese political leaders. His demand to Britain for early independence was backed by the support of the overwhelming majority of his politically conscious countrymen. The British governor, Sir Reginald Dorman-Smith, however, regarded Aung San as a traitor and war criminal. Sir Reginald's failure to reach agreement with the Burmese leader led to his replacement by Sir Hubert Rance, with whom Aung San quickly agreed on the composition of an interim government to help rule Burma until independence and to prepare for such independence. Aung San was premier-designate of the soon-to-be independent government.

In January 1947 Aung San, now Burma's acknowledged political leader, led the Burmese delegation to London for independence talks with British premier Clement Attlee. On his return in February 1947 Aung San successfully negotiated the Panglong Agreement, which provided for the participation of various frontier-area peoples in the new Union of Burma, as the emergent Burmese federal state was to be called. On July 19, 1947—six months before the coming of independence—Aung San, only 32, and most of the other top nationalist leaders of the country were shot to death by henchmen of an insanely jealous political rival, prewar premier U Saw. The anniversary of the assassinations, known as Martyrs Day, is Myanmar's most solemn national holiday.


Some Notable Quotes of General Aung San

• Power is a coveted and valuable thing.
• A people have a natural right to rise and overthrow tyranny.
• Politics is pure secular science. Politics, in its true sense, permeates life.
• Religious is a matter of individual conscience while politics is social science.
• Revolution is the direct participation of the masses themselves to shape their own destiny fundamentally by all possible means.
• Ruthless repression of the people by armed gangs in the name of false and narrow racial and ideological dogmas is Fascism.
• We must make democracy the popular creed. We must try to build up a free Burma in accordance with such a creed.
• The guns of the army of a nation are not to threaten its own citizens. The army must be the servant of its nation. The nation is the master, not the servant of its army.

• The Army has not been established for any individual, nor for any single party or group, but for our entire nation.
• We believe in ourselves, we believe in the masses. History will decide if what we have now done is wrong or right.
• No man, however great, can alone set the wheels of history in motion, unless he has the active support and cooperation of a whole people.
• Freedom is a right, not a gift. A gift can be granted by words, but freedom is a right that we must work ourselves to attain.
• History is fashioned not by the good intentions or wishful fancies of any individual or group of individuals, but ordered according to the iron laws of historical necessity.

• A leader must be more farsighted than his followers. He must show his followers the right way, must risk his life if required, must be tactful where tact is called for. A
man who hums and haws, does what one man and the other man wants; has no confidence in himself nor in his followers, say one thing and does another, is not a
leader.

AKM

Illustrated by Speaker (Kanaung)

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